Chemistry Lab Summary

This is two page paper single space with 2 references using ACS style

The paper contains two sections that are Introduction and Methods. 

Please read Rubric for the expectation and Lab Report for what to write about this paper.

Please watch the videos to learn information about this report.

       Overview the Lab information and Procedures:

       Four-Point Probe Measurement

       Lenz’s Law






This section will include 3 main paragraphs. (2 references in ACS style)

·      First paragraph will discuss relevant background information

·      Second paragraph, on the scientific theories that are essential to the experiment, states

o   What the scientific problem is. State the issue investigated by the experiment

o   Why is it a problem?

o   What are the solutions?

·      Third paragraph will be the objective/purpose of the experiment and a brief summary procedure of the experiment on how the purpose will be achieve


Note: Concisely but clearly describes the scientific problem and provides the necessary background for context. The purpose/objective(s) of the work must also be stated as well as an overview of the experiment that demonstrates how the purpose will be achieved.




In this section, you need to write the procedure in paragraph form rather than in bulleted, our outline form. You will use complete sentences. Write the procedure in enough detail so that someone outside of the class can pick up your formal report and perform the experiment using your procedure. Break the procedure into sections.

DO NOT write step by step!

DO NOT use pronoun (My, me, our, we etc.)

Write the procedure in PAST TENSE!


Note: Summarizes the procedure (including critical details for success) so an equivalent experiment could be reproduced.  Includes insight into why certain procedural choices were made.  Provides a background on the techniques, presents equations and how the results will be analysed/interpreted.




Note: References are appropriately documented and properly cited in the text. ACS style.



Lab Report



  • First paragraph: Background information
    • Background of superconductor properties? (2 main properties of superconductor: perfect conductance, Meissner effect)
    • What is transition temperature?
    • How does four-point probe measurement work?
    • What is Ohms Law: V=IR? How to use Ohm’s law to find transition temperature?
    • What is Lenz’s Law, and Meissner effect? Connect the laws to find properties of the superconductor.


·      Second paragraph: (what are the problems, why are they a problem, what are the solutions)

    • The scientific problems of this experiment are that the transition temperature and the properties of premade superconductor are unknown.
    • Why is it a problem and what is the solution? (Please write information related to the experiment answer these questions)


  • Third paragraph: (purpose and how to achieve)
    • Therefore, the purpose of the experiment is to determine the transition temperature of a premade superconductor using Ohm’s law and to measure superconducting properties using Meissner effect. With the aim of doing that, a premade superconductor will be placed inside a cryostat with a thermocouple, then perform four-point resistivity probe measurement to determine the transition temperature of the superconductor. Then by building the magnetic track, the Meissner effect will be used to determine the superconducting properties.



This section has 2 paragraphs, only focus on procedure of Day 2 (Measure Tc) and Day 4 (Measure Meissener Effect) of the video


  • First paragraph writing about 4 point measurement procedure and Cryostat set up

For example: (please DO NOT copy and paste the following writing, this is someone’s work. I included here for example of what the expectation is). Measuring the transition temperature involves setting up a 4 point probe measurement to apply a current source in order to measure the potential drop across the YBCO compound. To measure the resistivity at different temperature values, the four point measurement is placed in a cryostat to maintain a cold environment. This involves submerging the 4 point probe device in an aluminum can filled with glass beads. This aluminum can is then placed in a coffee mug. To drop the temperature, liquid nitrogen will be poured inside the aluminum can until the temperature probe remains about the boiling point of liquid nitrogen. Then, the cryostat is allowed to heat itself up to higher temperatures all while maintaining a steady rise in temperature by adding liquid nitrogen within the coffee mug. At every temperature increment, the voltage, and current are tabulated to extrapolate the resistivity at that temperature value.

    • Note that the procedure was performed for Three trials


·      Second paragraph writing the about Performed the Messiner effect to see if it follows Messiner effect, not Lenz’s Law

I know the procedure for this part is short. Please write minimum 5-7 sentences.




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