Please respond to each person lively and also use their names. Citations are optional.
Identify and discuss real world examples of each of the control techniques in implementation.
Whether labeled promotional, regulatory, prohibitive, redistributive or whatever, almost all policies incorporate and element of control. (Anderson, 2015, p. 261) In simpler terms, doing things people wouldnt otherwise do, agree or disagree, Comply.
Economic incentives such as subsidies, tax credits and loans are based on the assumption that people are utility maximizers. (Anderson, 2015, p. 261) A local government might allow for tax breaks to a large corporation if they build affordable housing for future employees or banks will give out loans to tech start-ups.
Capacity-enhancing techniques like mentoring, on the job training, workshops and counseling programs is the belief that people want to work and excel but require the resources to do so.
Hortatory techniques-declarations of policy, appeals for voluntary cooperation, admonitions against littering or drunk driving-assume that people act on the basis of their beliefs or values, that they will do what is right if informed about what is right. (Anderson, 2015, p. 262) In the beginning of the pandemic, people were told masks saved lives. Doing the right thing entailed covering up for your good and those around you. On the contrary, businesses and individuals who didnt obey the later mandated masks, risked fines and store closures (sanctions). This an example of Authoritative techniques, or the beliefs that requirements and restrictions are necessary to prevent people from engaging in unwanted behavior.
There are, however, other methods used to implement policies and achieve compliance that are noncoercive, meaning they dont involve sanctions, penalties, rewards or deprivations. The effectiveness of these forms depends mostly upon voluntary collaboration or acceptance by the affected parties, although social and economic pressures arising out of society may lend them an element of compulsion. (Anderson, 2015, p. 262)
Inspections, the most common forms of regulatory action, are used to determine whether a building, assembly plant, or product is in accordance with standards. Whichever form it takes, inspection is intended to reveal compliance or noncompliance with rules or standards by those involved in an activity, with the objective of preventing or correcting undesirable or dangerous conditions. (Anderson, 2015, p. 263)
Other noncoercive techniques include: Licensing, Loans and subsidies, Contracts, general expenditures Taxation and Directive Power, to name a few. The intention of public policies is to lead and guide human behavior in some way to obey government rules, otherwise people will act in their own accord.
Anderson, J. E. (2015). Public Policymaking An Introduction. Stamford: Cengage Learning.
Control Techniques in Implementation
Public policy occurs once policy adoption, the third step in the policy cycle, is completed. After adoption come public policy implementation, the fourth step in the policy cycle (Anderson, 2015). Implementation refers to anything that involves carrying out a policy and applying it. Implementation, also called administration, can be referred to as the period after the bill is passed (Anderson, 2015). Federalism typically complicates the implementation of many policies because they are managed by merely national officials, at times making Congress resistant to bypass the states when making policy. There are many real world examples of the control techniques in policy implementation.
Almost all policies include an element of control, which are actions built to cause people to either do, refrain, or continue to do things. There are a variety of control techniques called noncoercive forms of action, inspection, licensing, subsidies, contracts, general expenditures, market operations, taxation, tax expenditures, directive power, services, and a few others (Anderson, 2015). A real world example of noncoercive forms of action is the Texas Department of Transportation effort to reduce littering by posting signs saying dont mess with Texas. A real world example of inspection is the locomotives and railroad safety devices by the Federal Railroad Administration. Finally, the School District of Abington Township versus Schempp, where the public schools were required to read from the bible to its students (Oyez, 1963).
Anderson, J. E. (2015). Public Policymaking (8th ed.).
Oyez. (1963). School District of Abington Township, Pennsylvania v. Schempp. Retrieved February 11, 2022, from https://www.oyez.org/cases/1962/142