I’m working on a psychology discussion question and need support to help me understand better.
Read the posts of your peers and respond to at least two. Please try to choose posts that have not yet had responses. Each response should be 150 words or more. In your responses, provide feedback on the learner’s description of a research design. Which design elements seem well planned? Which elements need additional thought?
Free from typos and spelling errors, and follow standard English grammar. You will need to support your points with in-text citations and references in APA style.
To understand stereotypes, one must comprehend the culture and how it influences our thinking of different cultural groups. Culture is a meaningful existence facilitated through patterned, shared, and reproduced symbolic practices (Carter, 2015, p. 2). Thus, individuals and families who participate in symbolic practices create meaning and identity that serves their well-being and belonging to their culture. Therefore, it is incumbent that we understand how the dominant cultural values impact how we see others’ cultures and practices that are different from our own. According to Carter (2015), stereotypes are undependable generalizations about all members belonging to a particular group and do not consider unique individual differences. For example, a sexual orientation/gender-based stereotype is that all butch-lesbians hate men and that people over 65 cannot learn new things.
Despite that some of this can be true on a personalized and individualized basis, the problem begins when this assumption about the other culture becomes a lens through which one views the whole group. For example, a butch-identified lesbian who works with a cis-gender male therapist who unconsciously assumes that she hates all men can be problematic for the client. The therapist’s implicit bias will harm her trust in the therapeutic process, distrust the therapist, feel uncomfortable, and enforce the stereotype ‘angry lesbian who hates men’ (Hunt, Fowers, & Davidov, 2006). Similarly, a 65-year-old female wants to take a class on technology, and the teacher who is in their mid 30 gets impatient or has an implicit bias that this 65-year-old female cannot learn. Being impatient could impact the teacher’s level of patience with the student. Therefore sending the student a discouraging message affects their self-esteem and sense of well-being to learn something new (Hays, 2008).
Thus, having strong ethical research standards and principles can limit the implicit biases that psychologists can ensue in their research. One research study idea is the emotional impact of stereotyping on Butch identified Lesbians. This research is pertinent because feeling confident in one’s gender expression is crucial to overall psychological well-being. Many ethical standards would apply to the study, including researchers needing to conduct their self-awareness, open discussions related to the material that triggers the researchers and hiring LGBTQIA+ consultants/researchers to help guide the research. I would recruit participants to be adverting in their local community and thoroughly understand the informed consent. I would want to avoid gender biases throughout the study.
Similarly, with ageism, I would want to investigate the impact of stereotyping on the elderly’s ability and willingness to learn new things. Learning and acquiring new knowledge helps our brain health and increases our sense of well-being, making it pertinent for elderly individuals to keep their minds active and engaged. When setting up the research, I would want to understand how our brain learns when older, treat each participant with respect, ensure autonomy, and have the research benefit the participant. I would provide the research team has explored their own age bias through small workgroups. I would recruit participants at the local ADRC, athletic clubs, grocery stores, churches, and other community activities. I would want to avoid the research bias that the elderly participants cannot learn new things and experience the younger researchers’ implicit impatience.
One gender-based stereotype is that women are caretakers and homemakers. This rigid masculine culture (Carter, 2015) presents itself in a manner of women being responsible for cooking, cleaning, groceries, etc. This stereotype furthers as the male is expected to be the career-oriented partner in a heterosexual relationship (Johnson & Johnston, 2015), both increasing the woman’s responsibilities in the home and negating her presence in the work force. This stereotype is detrimental to women as it has limited opportunities in some career fields (Carter, 2015), as well as placing expectations on them in the household due to gender rather than innate interest. Despite recent indications of change as more women gain leadership roles in society, the years of social majority influences on the roles of mother and father for over 100 years (Johnson & Johnston, 2015) has encouraged the implicit learning (Carter, 2015) of this stereotype in the US today.
Then there is the US American stereotype present against those who practice Islam. Since the early 2000s, US Muslim citizens, particularly those who appear to be from the Middle East, have frequently been treated with suspicion, as if they are terrorists as well due to the identifiers similar between them and the 9/11 bombers (Abu-Ras, Suárez, & Abu-Bader, 2018). One major difference between this stereotype and that of the female caretaker is that this was largely explicitly learned (Carter, 2015) as citizens were told or instructed their children to fear those of the Islam faith in the early 2000s. Another difference between these stereotypes is the level of hostility frequently turned against people in this group. Specific caretaker expectations towards women are more likely to be frustrating than potentially harmful, but those of the Islam faith in the US have been subject to violence towards them (Abu-Ras, et al., 2018), putting them in danger due to a belief different from the social majority (Carter, 2015). Both these stereotypes share the similarity that, unless through medical transition or conversion if wished, members of these groups are unable to simply leave the group and its stereotypes; as long as they are part of said cultural group, both stereotypes share the similarity of being assigned to a role that has little to do with individual wants or beliefs, be that as threat or caretaker.
A large career goal for this learner is to open a private practice that can help normalize mental health conversations for those who may feel traditionally more stigma towards counseling. Over the years, stereotypes have formed regarding which ethnic and racial groups are more likely to seek out counseling, with the assumption being it is easier for white patients to seek counseling without group questioning (Day-Vines, Beverly, Steen, & Arnold, 2018). With that in mind this research study would investigate different racial groups responses to counseling. The study would be two part, opening interviews and questionnaires, and then following a time-limited window of counseling, repeating those interviews and questionnaires to determine change in mindset. This study would be important as it would give psychologists a better understanding of how to approach clients based on the cultural understandings they grew up with, as thoughts around counseling itself may impact the counseling process (Day-Vines, et al., 2018). The study would also examine how different cultural groups may assimilate into counseling following any initial culture-related hesitations.
Participants would be recruited based on previous hospital study volunteers. Volunteers from studies such as for vaccination or sleep based studies, whose information is on record within the hospital. When surveying them, there would be consideration of whether they had previously attended counseling, focusing on those who had not. This would create a pool of participants new to counseling.
There are several research biases that can be avoided. The first is to ensure that volunteers are assigned to counselors without racial consideration, as in not assigning all white volunteers to one counselor, and all Asian-American volunteers to another. This way, if one group happens to have a more favorable experience, that would not be statistically flagged as a factor of race rather than counselor dyad (Day-Vines, et al., 2018). Another bias avoidance would be for the external researchers to identify the volunteers anonymously, and not connect demographic information to survey questionnaire results until analysis. This way, every volunteer will be regarded the same, strengthening fairness prior to the final demographic analysis. This is particularly important as looking at several race groups in one study could lead to racial microinvalidations (Carter, 2015), which would be harmful to volunteers and damage the integrity of study results (Pappas, 2019). Additionally, in accordance with the APA’s (2019) Race and Ethnicity Guidelines for research, specificity of language describing each group in the study would be key, as oversimplifying, such as referring to every black study volunteer as African-American regardless of if they are US native-born (Pappas, 2019), would both disregard volunteers and mar study comparisons (APA, 2019) in the future.