M6A SCIENCE

Choose which ingredient variable you would like to experiment with in your cookie. The subject line in this post should include the variable that you chose, to help your peers find the information that they need quickly while writing their reports next week. There should be no more than 2-3 students per ingredient variable! If you are late to the discussion forum, you may have to make do with whichever variable is left.
In your post, you should answer one of the following pre-lab questions, related to your ingredient:
1. What is the specific chemical role for sugar, leavening reagent, proteins and fats in baking cookies?
2. What are the main components of flour? What is the difference between each type of flour listed in this handout?
3. There are several types of sugars presented in this handout. What are the differences? What do you predict will be the impact of these sugars?
4. Egg yolks add an emulsifying agent to cookies. What is the emulsifier? What does this emulsifier do to the final cookie?
Run the lab. EVERYONE needs to do the control cookie recipe as well as their selected variable ingredient. Once you have prepared the cookies, measure the spread and puff, and rate the tenderness, color and taste. You may report this using a video or pictures (or both). You should also create and include a table with these data included on it. (You will then expand this table with other variables in your final report).
Post your data table and pictures as a response to your initial post (no need to respond to peers directly, unless you want to!). You should also be clear about why you gave the ratings that you gave. As you prepare to write your report you will want to compile the data for at least FIVE variables together (one variable should be your own).
Lab Report Instructions:
Your report should include at a minimum the following elements:
Title of exercise
Describe in a single sentence the experiment that you carried out; making sure that the title is fully descriptive of the exercise you carried out.
Aim/Objectives/Hypothesis
Provide sufficient background information to orient the reader to the laboratory exercise. Then, describe in a couple of sentences the aim(s) of the experiment. Please dont restate what you did; however, mention WHY you did it. For example, This lab was performed to assess the effect of sunlight exposure on tomato plants. Your hypothesis should be an if/then statement. If tomato plants are given unlimited sunlight, then we would expect them to grow to taller compared to plants that are only exposed to 12 hours of sunlight per day. Be sure to carefully consider the variables in your experiment when formulating your hypothesis.
Methods
Describe how you conducted your experiment. The methods section should be a detailed description of the methods you used for investigating your hypothesis (in past tense you have completed the experiment and so should be written as past tense). It should include a description of any equipment used, the timing of your experiments, the protocol for your experiments, etc. You need to include enough detail that another scientist could replicate your experiments following just the information you provide.
Results
The results section will include any observations made, data collected, etc. You should both describe the observations, data, etc. in words, and include graphs, photographs, and/or figures to enhance your results section. The narrative part of this section should be brief. Concisely state the experimental results that you obtained. Do not restate the methods used. Start with an overview statement of the general trend in your data and then go into more detail about individual data points, averages, etc. that will present a full picture of your results. You should use the text to describe the patterns, trends, etc. that you observe in your visuals (graphs, figures, etc.) and draw the reader’s attention to these trends. It is helpful to clue the reader into the fact that you’re discussing one of your figures by using notations such as “As illustrated in Figure 2.” You should NOT discuss whether or not your results support your hypothesis in the results section; save this assessment for the discussion section of your report. For example, here you would report a trend in the growth of tomato plants, but not what those results mean in terms of your hypothesis (sunlight did or did not help the tomato plants grow taller).
Discussion
Critically evaluate the results & discuss their significance. The discussion section should begin with a discussion of how/if your results support or reject your hypothesis. Following this sentence, you should discuss the major results of the experiment/investigation and go into more detail about how these results support, reject, or modify your original hypothesis. Present a rational analysis of your results. The idea is not to summarize your results (you should have already done that in the previous results section), but instead consider reasons underlying your results. What do your results tell you? Did the experiment work as planned? If not, explain why not? Pay particular attention to any positive or negative controls that were used! Were the values observed higher or lower than expected? Did any errors occur, or were there inherent problems in the experimental procedure? Discuss the significance of the experiment. Finish this section with conclusions that wrap up your report. Are there any remaining questions? Were there new questions raised by your investigation? What might you have done differently if you had the chance to do the experiment again?
Proper citations and references should be used throughout.

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